Casting the passive obedient Marian figure as the ‘feminine’ ideal gives a religious sanction to women’s restricted growth and vulnerability before abuse. A malestream Mariology continues to inscribe the sociocultural image of the feminine that sanctifies the marginalization and exploitation of women.41, The idealization of the ‘feminine’ in Mary functions as an obstacle to women’s growth in human qualities such as critical thinking, autonomy, boldness and other traits characteristic of a mature adult personality, qualities that are crucial for their effective participation in the church, and in the wider concerns of society. This text (Eph 5: 20–23) from St. Paul’s letter to the Ephesians is read at all Syrian Christian marriages. Part of Springer Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, 69. ), The Sage Handbook of the Sociology of Religion, Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore: Sage, 2007, 550-570. Christine E. Gudorf. The paper interrogates the nexus between gender, religion and patriarchy in a context where the marginalization of the female gender is continuous in spite of the strides in female education. Further, living ‘femininely’ with endless capacity to bear sorrows and endure suffering can even be life-threatening, as women will remain passive and tolerant even before extreme violence. In feminist theorizing protectionism is an expression of benevolent patriarchy as it entails dependency of the wife on the husband. In the Catholic Church in Kerala, every parish is divided into smaller units of 15–20 families for better pastoral outreach, and these are called Family Units. Women tend to believe that the suffering that is intrinsic to their gendered condition is virtuous and divinely ordained. May this be a sign of their faithfulness’. God is depicted as a man. Women are considered the original sinners and it has been taught that women are deceptive temptresses and not much else. This article is concerned with the way in which the power of religion and culture is used to perpetuate the hegemony of patriarchy and the subordination of women. The story of Anita, a woman in her early 50s, and her struggle of coping with the demands of conjugal life illustrates this. The mantrakodi is a special saree with which the groom drapes the bride’s head during the marriage ceremony. Karen Armstrong in her book Islam: A short History has pointed out that ‘the women of the first Ummah in Medina took full part in the public life’. Linda Woodhead, “Gender Differences in Religious Practice and Significance”, 558. Since women are socialized from childhood days to pay heed to religious injunctions, these play a very formative role in shaping women’s outlook about life at large. Dalit living arrangements are relatively flexible with respect to household labour, child care and even sexual propriety than that of the upper and middle castes. The fact that patriarchal grip persists regardless of the higher developmental indices of these women is an attestation of the Syrian Christian ethos as a religious system that function as the main support of this enduring patriarchal structure. On checking the motivation behind their religious practices, majority acknowledge that they find strength and healing through their church devotions (68.4 per cent), whereas some attend church services because of social obligation as expected of them in the community (32.6 per cent). ANOVA with a significance value of .000 supports the positive relation between religious indoctrination and patriarchal notions of decision-making in women. The Catholic scholar of Islam Louis Massignon stated that the phrase "Abrahamic religion" means that all these religions come from one spiritual source. ... misunderstanding of Muslims. It seems that eventually every religion or organised belief-system was hijacked by vested interests to further their own patriarchal agenda. In Mulieris Dignitatem, women are exhorted to seek help from Mary ‘to see how virginity and motherhood, two paths in the vocation of women as persons, explain and complete each other’ (MD 17). Cf. In an FGD with housewives in a rural locality, women spoke of Marian devotion instilling in them strength to cope with the many concerns of everyday life. Rahner Karl, Theological Investigations, Vol. pp 143-165 | Talking about the fundamentalist gender ideology in the New Religions of Japan, Helen Hardacre observes that unlike Christian, Muslim and Hindu fundamentalism where the principal religious activists are overwhelmingly male, many of these religions are led by women. Their role, as they saw it, was to stabilize society by generating and regenerating moral character. Davidman’s data suggests that women are attracted by the whole package of nuclear familial domesticity which is advocated by contemporary forms of Orthodox Judaism, including the idea of a husband who will be a companionate protector-provider and protect women from the dangers posed by family breakdown. Not logged in Maria Mies, Patriarchy and Capital Accumulation, 40. https://doi.org/10.1080/10130950.2004.9676037, https://doi.org/10.18848/1833-1882/CGP/v03i03/52558, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21488-3_5, Religious Patriarchy in the Catholic Syrian Christian Community, Religious Indoctrination Reinforcing Gender Hierarchy, Religious Indoctrination and Gendering of Power. Terms in this set (...) Liberal Feminist. In addition to its strictly economic form, this oppression is expressed in many ways, notably through language, kinship relations, stereotypes, religion, and culture. Why, otherwise, in an institution having two people as partners, would only one partner be expected to ‘showcase’ their marital status and, hence, sexual exclusivity. The practice of Sati, or self-immolation by widows on the funeral-pyres of their husbands, thrived for centuries because it was rooted in the belief of futility of a woman’s existence without her husband. Susan A. Ross, “Mary: Human, Feminine, Divine?” Concilium, 2008/4, 27–33, here 27. © FII Media Private Limited | All rights reserved. ), The Sage Handbook of the Sociology of Religion, Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore: Sage, 2007, 550–570, 556. Its biblical value is seen as a rationale behind such a stand, though for some it is relevant because it is their lived experience. Thus it should not be surprising that the treatment of gender in religions and cultures has changed throughout history. Religious doctrines, beliefs and practices serve to translate to everyday experiences the patriarchal ideologies that legitimize and reinforce the existing gender hierarchy. In many situations, religious doctrines, beliefs and practices serve to translate to life experiences the patriarchal ideologies that legitimize female subordination. Besides, the powerful image of mother represents an authority that submits to be tamed, provided it is allowed to retain the moral aura associated with motherhood.11, The caste factor also comes into play in CSC women’s valorization of motherhood, and this becomes distinct when seen in relation to Dalit women’s experience. Not affiliated Cf. Data from the research indicate that among CSC women, those who are more vulnerable to religious indoctrination have a higher gendered consciousness. Even in their time, the opposition to them wore the garb of religion and tradition. See Kumkum Sangari and Suresh Vaid (eds), Recasting Women: Essays in Colonial History, New Delhi: Zubaan 2006. This has a hegemonic impact on women as it normalizes their subordination as divinely ordained. In complementarity to man’s position as the head of the family, the woman is assigned a special role of being the ‘heart’ of the family, and, in this ‘privileged’ role, she is taken to be the grace or ‘light’ of the family.14 When women function from a gendered world view, they tend to take this as an honoured position and are ready to give in uncritically to its directives. In the case of men, a lesser number engage in reading literature of an evangelical nature (26.7 per cent), while majority engage in spiritual reading of a reflective nature (43.3 per cent) and in theological reading (30 per cent). They are also significant in demarcating the limits of acceptable behaviour and possible attainments associated with masculinity and femininity. Steven Parish, Hierarchy and its Discontents, 18. Autonomy can be explained as ‘freedom from coercion’,32 but this goes contrary to the internalized hegemonic codes of religion which demand women’s submission to their husbands in everything. For example, in Islam, the right to instantaneous and unilateral divorce is enjoyed only by men. Women’s readiness to yield to the gendered regimes of religion is again brought out in the affirmation by majority of the women respondents that their primary religious duty is to be a good mother by bringing up children in faith (77.1 per cent). Nancy F. Cott, The Bonds of Womanhood: “Woman’s Sphere” in New England, 1780–1835, New Haven, and London: Yale University Press, 1977, 67–69, 97–98. Having internalized vidheyathvam, the Syrian Christian women collaborate actively in the maintenance the domination-dependency paradigm as a pattern for man-woman relationships in the family. While there is the in-your-face “love jihad” along with “honour killing”, patriarchy is sneaky in the way it conditions us to find partners within our social boundaries. The patriarchal religion is monotheistic(worship of only one God or entity), or what can be called “modified monotheistic“in nature… Down through the ages, women have been socialized to believe that they are the guardians of morality and faith and it is their divinely ordained responsibility to transmit religio-cultural traditions in all its purity. Their participation, too, was resented by those who preferred to uphold the barriers of patriarchy … The graph is indicative of the influence of religious indoctrination to position women within a gendered framework,35 and this has direct implications on their conjugal life. Clifford Geertz “Religion as a Cultural System” in The Interpretation of Cultures, New York: Basic Books Inc. 1973, 90. First, I will use a historical perspective to describe the advent and the perpetuation of patriarchy and the historical interrelationship between patriarchy and patriarchal religion. Women acknowledge experiencing the direct impact of religious indoctrination strongly in the area of sexuality. The respondent, a lady college principal, shared her views in an in-depth interview. Even so, one of the hallmarks of these religions is their view that women ought to be subservient to men in ways that were institutionalized.43. Hijab, Niqab, veils, sindoor and mangalsutra are all religiously-endorsed tools for showcasing and implying ‘sexual exclusivity’ of women. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. andee … Mathrudeepthi is a well-organized network at the parish and diocesan level that serves to contain women in the gendered mould of the glorified feminine. Regard to religious indoctrination ( RI ) and gendered consciousness University of California Press 1991, 116–120 wife... 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